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Digital Services (DLC)
Smathers Libraries
University of Florida
P.O Box 117003
Gainesville, FL 32611 USA

P: 352.273.2900
F: 352.846.3702

Digital Library Center: Audio & Video

The following includes information on some of the equipment onsite. This information is not an endorsement of any manufacturer's product.

  • Marantz PMD660 Professional Portable Digital Recorder for audio
    Sampling: Records uncompressed 16-bit PCM .wav files at 44.1 kHz or 48 kHz
    Connections: 2 built-in stereo condenser mics with Automatic Level Control (ALC), 2 XLR microphone connections with 48 volt phantom power, stereo line I/O
    Price: approximately $430 (consult vendors for current pricing)
    Deployment: one (1) units deployed within the Digital Library Center's offices
    Staffing: used by both the Operations Manager and specially trained student assistants with extensive analog and digital processing experience.
  • Other equipment includes:
    AMPEX CVR-70 Betacam Recorder
    Sony Betacam SP Videocassette Player BVW-ZZ
    Technics Stereo Graphic Equalizer
    Sony U-Matic SP, VO-9600
    TEAC stereo double cassette deck
    Ion TTUSB05 USB Turntable
    Sony SVHS
    Reel to reel player


Standards for audio sampling/capture are:

  • Current standard: 24-bit 96.0 kHz WAV
    (An hour of audio at this standard is 1.98 GB.)
  • Old standard: 16-bit 44.1 kHz WAV

Video Standards for Encoding:

  • Ideal: HD Standard (1080p preferred over 1080i)
  • Acceptable: NTSC (525-line, 30 frames per second, interlaced)

Video Standards for File Formats:

  • Ideal: MPEG-4
  • Acceptable: MPEG-2
  • Acceptable deriviatives are WMV, AVI, QT

Technology is moving toward 24-bit 192 kHz. For the moment, we do not to use this standard. While the technical capability is now available, it has not yet been adopted by the various audio engineering associations. Technology is also moving toward variable bit rate (VBR) encoding. For the moment, we have chosen to stay with the constant bit rate (CBR) encoding. VBR is reported to reproduce recorded sound more faithfully, but it introduces archive issues not yet addressed (to our knowledge) by digital library archives.

Motion JPEG 2000 is also under consideration.

DLC Current A/V Processing

Current video processing is done using:

  • Standard Intel Core 2 Duo machine with 2 GiB of RAM base
  • ATI All-in-Wonder 2006 Edition (Radeon X1300 GPU); PCI-e
  • YPrPb adapter, TV-Tuning capabilities (and capture), HD-ready output.

We can capture video from a JVC SuperVHS unit and convert the analog signal to a usable, preservable digital signal with a minimum of interference (versus using an external decoder).

We encode in MPEG-2 and AVI (AVI used for downloading, MPEG-2 or 4 for preservation on optical media). Three resolutions standard: 320x240, 640x480, and 720x480. Depending on the source, we can’t always dictate whether something can transformed into HD. NTSC, 30fps is acceptable, mostly when it comes to objects drawn from video tape (especially amateur productions on consumer-grade cassettes). We use Adobe Premier Elements 2.0 for video encoding.

Current audio processing is done using the same computer with a specialized sound card, using the component audio software and Audacity freeware as a supplement. We also use a dual tape deck, depending on specific project needs.

Distribution Formats

Most audio players do not yet play either 24-bit or 96 kHz audio. Most players support 16-bit audio, some support 44.1 kHz while others only 28 kHz. For distribution, we down-sample the archived audio to the CD audio standard, 16-bit 44.1. The cleaned voice-audio signal should experience no degradation to lower than 28 kHz, per the research. The DLC plans to distribute the following formats:

  • CD/DVD audio (for distribution to Special Collections and/or applicable department)
  • Streaming MP3 (for Internet distribution) MP3 seems to be the prevailing Internet streaming and download format.


Prior Workflow

Save file in three formats:

  • avi
  • mpg
  • wmv
Format Output container Output Video Codec Output Audio Codec
Save each format without change
  • Add to the file name: “_orig”
  • Render as “nochange”
  • 30FPS
  • 2496BR
  • Appropriate audio channels: 44100kh
  • Sampling frequency with a bit rate of 128kbps
Archive all Retain/preserve all derivative files and the original source file in the final BibID package for archiving.


If image materials are to be printed at a large size using the Map Library's printer, the files need to be under a maximum of 180MB. Also, backgrounds should be white or light so as not to use too much ink.

Last modified: Monday March 05 2012 lnt